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Eine Lebensgeschichte, Leipzig: Paul List, , p. O, dastard nation, dastard deed! Wyeth, Poor Lo! Early Indian missions. A memorial, Philadelphia Pa. Wyeth, , frontispiece. It was said to be necessary for the survival or optimized functioning and unavoidable modernizing of the national society. Removal raised ethical questions which, by referring to law, truth, humanity and religion, challenged both the permissibility and the long-term wisdom of that kind of policy.
Before being removed, the targeted groups were classified and registered, mostly according to ethno-religious criteria, on the basis of existing data or new census lists. The removals in question were organized at different times by two different states, one a rising, the other a crumbling power.
The removals had different dimensions, but were both claimed to be unavoidable for state building. In both cases the ABCFM had defended an integrative, non-exclusive vision of the societies concerned. The Indian removal did not equal mass killing as did that of the Armenians. Nevertheless, this article argues that modern state building was ambivalent about demographical engineering not only in Turkey, but also, even if less apparently, in the USA. In the 19th and 20th centuries, ethno-religious diversity was explored, appreciated, and projected into a modern universalistic future where legal equality, nationally or globally, would reign.
This was the project of an enlightened modernity; in the Ottoman Empire this was, at least partly, the project of the Reform Age Tanzimat. However, at the same time, modern states exercised discrimination and engineered social Darwinist exclusion on the basis of ethno-religious distinctions and systematically gathered data. To reveal and to argue against such powerful state rationales was a difficult challenge both in the s in the USA and the s in Turkey.
In Turkey it still remains difficult. American Indian Removal 4In large parts of the Indian tribe of the Cherokees in Northern Georgia and South Carolina were forcibly relocated, some of them in manacles. About 4, out of ca. This was the so-called Trail of Tears, the particularly deadly archetype of several Indian removals from Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina and Mississippi in the s.
In total they involved about , Indians of which many thousands died; many more could not cope with the trauma and began, for generations, a life in misery and alcoholism. Walter N. Wyeth wrote in Wyeth However, the Indian Removal Act of 28 May was a departure from the policy of respecting the established rights of the Indians.
It authorized the government to grant Indian tribes western prairie land in exchange for their territories, especially in the Southeast. Nevertheless, it provided only for negotiation and voluntary relocation, not for coercion and violence, as happened in A group of Cherokee had already voluntarily left its land in Thornton ; Carter n.
The Indian tribes did not become citizens of the USA until the s. The Armenians, for their part, were citizens of the state that removed and killed them.
There were no negotiations with representatives of the Armenian community in or before about a territorial exchange and the destination of the removed people. He had experienced the American Revolution and was a military hero, having crushed the Indian tribe of the Creeks in He perceived the Indians as erratic, inferior to the white settlers and a threat to the national integrity of the young USA.
Indian attacks had already been a hard reality for many settlers before and after those wars. Settler militias in turn were mostly rapacious and brutal. They ultimately proved to be a major instrument to hasten removal; governors had only partial control of them Hill The Cherokees had managed to adapt their way of life in many respects to that of the white men, including, in some instances, slavery.
They introduced European know-how, were successful farmers, formed a tribal government modelled on the US government, developed an alphabet for their own Iroquoian language in and very quickly became literate Wishart This land, which belonged to the Cherokees according to a treaty, was now mapped out for distribution to white citizens of Georgia.
In the years before the Armenian genocide, the question of Armenian agrarian property, robbed by Kurds, was one of the main issues of Ottoman interior politics. Needing the cooperation of the tribal chiefs, the Young Turks were not able, and finally not willing, to resolve this issue according to the rule of law.
This first US overseas mission had begun its work among the Cherokees in , six years after its foundation in Boston in , and three years before it sent its first missionaries to the Ottoman Empire. Yet in , the historian Clifton J. After an initial policy of assimilation focusing on teaching English, which the missionaries thought would help the Indians to survive, they adopted a more integrative approach.
They promoted the vernaculars and a bilingual Cherokee-English newspaper. They attempted to bring to the Cherokees the best of what they believed to have and to know.
Since the Cherokees shared in this they were equals not only according to the principle of human equality, but also as fellow believers in the Gospel. For the ABCFM, race and culture could not be a factor of discrimination; material envy obviously not.
Evarts, together with the missionaries on the spot, sympathetic publishers in New England, and some politicians in Washington, led an extensive fight against the removal policy of the Jackson administration after Under the pseudonym of William Penn he wrote a series of articles that were printed by several papers and cited in Congressional debates Evarts Here is the only weak place in their cause.
Not human rights, but the rights of the stronger seemed to win. Evarts died, exhausted, in May Andrew On 3 March , Chief Justice John Marshall declared the Cherokee Nation to be a distinct community outside the jurisdiction of the State of Georgia and cleared the prisoners of all charges Phillips In contrast, the Armenians were both citizens of the state and members of a distinct community, or millet see below , and their millet, even if autonomous in certain regards, was within the territory and the main jurisdiction of the state.
Removal now seemed to be unavoidable. Recognizing this reality, the missionaries did not back those Cherokees who opted for armed resistance and killed the representatives of a minority Cherokee faction that had finally signed the pro-removal New Echota Treaty of Phillips The majority of the Cherokees remained in passive resistance.
They would not permit any of us to enter the house to get any clothing but drove us off to a fort that was built at New Echota. The victims had been defined in by the first major census of Cherokees living in North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, compiled by the Federal government. It listed the name of the head of each family Wishart ; Carter n. Total destruction, as in the case of the Armenians, did not occur.
Prucha concludes Evarts A number of Georgians were nostalgic, but they did not question themselves. They rebuilt the missionary stations in the West Phillips Many of them preferred missionary news from overseas that reassured rather than troubled those at home. Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians 21The main facts, contexts and results of the destruction of the Armenians in Asia Minor during World War I have become common scholarly knowledge in the last few years for recent narratives see Kévorkian , Akçam , Bloxham ; for the role of the ABCFM and other missions see Kieser I will limit my following observations to points relevant to the comparative perspective of this article and some lesser-known aspects of the question.
These distinctions constituted the Pax Ottomanica and its hierarchical not egalitarian plurality. The religiously defined system of millets, i. The Western-inspired reforms of the Tanzimat , a synthesis of Ottoman institutions and Western norms, projected an Ottoman society that included semi-autonomous ethno-religious communities among which the Armenians were the most dynamically developing group.
Most Ottoman Armenians were members of the traditional Ermeni Gregoryen milleti or millet-i Ermeniyan. They shared with the ABCFM an ideal of a pluralist, legally equal, and egalitarian society that stood in contrast to the hierarchical society of the preceding centuries.
The American society that the ABCFM had hoped for would similarly have implemented Indian rights and citizenship, thus becoming a society whose egalitarian pluralism did not limit itself to white men.
According to the ABCFM, the state withheld rightful protection to a group which it structurally discriminated; in particular, it yielded to the will of eastern Anatolian regional lords and rulers, great Muslim land owners and tribal leaders. In any case, the large-scale pogroms during the autumn of had a huge impact in terms of demography and property relations Verheij ; Wiessner The ABCFM compiled comprehensive documentation of the anti-Armenian violence of the s, contributing significantly to its international publicity and to the international humanitarian movement in support of its victims.
The alliance between the Committee of Union and Progress CUP and the Armenian Dashnaktsutiun from was based on the consensus that the stolen land would be restored and safety for life and property established.
However, after initial serious efforts by both CUP and Armenian representatives, the matter dragged on Kaligian ; Bozarslan In Armenian representatives turned to European diplomacy. Outstanding cooperation between Russian and German leadership led to a substantial reform plan, which the Ottoman government signed in February For many international observers, including the ABCFM, these reforms — a thoroughly revised Russian draft — were a compromise which would bring more security and democracy to eastern Anatolia, and where no-one lost out Davison The projected modern reforms for a multiethnic eastern Anatolia aimed at guaranteeing first the safety and second the equality of the Armenians living there among a majority of Muslims art.
Nevertheless, the reform discussion had a demographic bias from the beginning. As early as , Captain Claytons, one of the British officers dispatched to eastern Anatolia after the Congress of Berlin, had thought about the possibility of making clearer ethno-religious concentrations in Anatolia, for example the Armenians in the East, the Turks in the rest Kieser The Ottoman state of the Tanzimat reforms had not succeeded in improving the general safety in the mostly Kurdo-Armenian regions of eastern Anatolia.
The equality of Muslims and non-Muslims in terms of law, taxes and legal practice, as promised in the Reform Edict, had only partly been implemented. Two serious attempts at concrete reforms according to art. Once the American state decided on removal and legislated accordingly, the ABCFM continued, at least for a while, to protest and denounce this policy as illegitimate because it violated fundamental human rights. The Deportation Act of May a provisional law because the Ottoman Parliament was closed made removal official.
In contrast to the Indian Removal however, the Deportation Act disguised its target, range, methods and destination. From onwards, ABCFM members exposed the leading Young Turks as inexperienced and irresponsible young men who, intoxicated by imperial power and radical nationalism, might lead the Ottoman world into catastrophe and misuse Islam for purposes of mass violence. Consequently, the CUP completely revoked the principles of the Tanzimat and went on to complete the destruction of the Armenians in Asia Minor.
However, most data were to be found within the millet administration, which was linked to the ecclesiastical organization. Therefore the CUP regime needed much more statistical and ethnographical knowledge for the social engineering it was eager to undertake, and conducted studies before and during World War I Dündar At the same time it led campaigns in order to demographically Turkify Anatolia.
The Armenian genocide of concerned above all the members of the Ermeni Gregoryen milleti. However, following ethno-religous and racial logics, it also included the much smaller numbers of Armenians in the Protestant milleti and Katolik milleti, even if exceptions were more frequent in these cases due to foreign pressure.
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